Car Engine Parts Engine

The engine that converts the heat energy obtained from the fuel into mechanical energy is called a

Engine Types

According to their time:

  1. Four-stroke engines
  2. Two-stroke engines

According to Used Fuels

  1. Gasoline engines
  2. Diesel engines
  3. LPG engines

According to the Fuel Combustion Location:

  1. Internal combustion engines
  2. External combustion engines

According to the construction specifications

  1. Row type
  2. They are lying flat against each other (flat, slightly slanted, boxer type)
  3. Combined with an angle in a row (V type)
  4. Circle shape (Star type)

According to the number of cylinders

  1. Single cylinder
  2. Multi-cylinder

According to Cooling Systems:

  1. Water cooled
  2. Air cooled

PARTS OF THE Engine motor.

Cylinder block : It is the main part that contains the cylinders and carries the engine parts on it.

Cylinder head

  1. Cylinder head : It is the cover that covers the cylinder block and forms the combustion chambers.
  2. Crankcase : The part under the cylinder block, which serves as a reservoir for engine oil.
  3. Valve cover : It protects the valve (rocker) mechanism on the engine from external influences.
  4. Radiator : Storage tank with coolant.
  5. Carburetor : The part that provides the gasoline-air mixture.
  6. Air Filter : Cleans the air entering the cylinders.
  7. Manifolds (suction-exhaust) : The tubes are the air fuel mixture to the cylinders that carry the burnt gases out.
  8. Oil Filter: Removes impurities in the engine oil.
  9. Induction coil (Ignition) : It increases the current from the battery to 15.000-25.000 volts.
  10. Spark plug : It is the part that ignites the gasoline-air mixture.
  11. Connector (regulator): It is the component that converts the electricity produced by the charger to the correct current and regulates it to 12 volts.
  12. Injector : It is the part that injects fuel in diesel engine
  13. Crankshaft: The piston is connected to the pistons, motor is the result of the operation and the force obtained from the engine to take the shaft.
  14. Piston : The part that moves in the cylinder and helps to convey the movement to the crankshaft.
  15. Piston rod : This is the part that transmits the linear movement of the piston to the crankshaft.
  16. Oil pump : It sends the oil in the sump to the moving parts.
  17. Fuel pump (petrol automatic) : The part that sends fuel to the carburetor.
  18. Starter : It is the first part of the motor. Converts electrical energy into motion energy.
  19. Alternator (Charger): It is the part that produces the electrical energy required for the vehicle. Converts the energy of motion to electrical energy.
  20. Water pump (recirculation ): Allows the water to circulate in the channels inside the cylinder.

What is Car Injector Pump

  1. Injector pump : It is the component that sends fuel to the injectors in diesel engines.

Car injector what is work

  1. Injector : The piece that sends fuel to the pulverized cylinder.

Car camshaft camshaft what is what work pictures

  1. Cam (camshaft) shaft : This is the part that makes some motor systems work with the movement taken from the crankshaft.

What is a car valve?

  1. Valves : The intake (intake) of the fuel into the cylinders, the exhaust gas from the cylinder (exhaust).
  2. Feed Pump : It is the component that transmits diesel oil to the injector pump in diesel engines.

Operating Sequence of Four Stroke Engines

  1. Time: Absorption
  2. Time: Compression
  3. Time: Ignition (Work)
  4. Time: Exhaust

Working Principles of Four-Stroke Gasoline Engines

  1. Suction: Removal of the fuel-air mixture into the cylinder.
  2. Compression: Compression of the compressed air
  3. Exhaust: Extraction of residual gases in the cylinder.

he motors are divided into two and four-stroke according to their operating times.

  • Suction time : When the piston moves from the O.N. to the A.Ö.N. Piston A. Ö. Absorption time ends when it drops to N.
  • Compression Time: When the piston is moving towards the TPS, both valves are closed and the gasoline air mixture begins to be compressed. Compression process ends when the Piston arrives.
  • Ignition (Work) time : At the end of the compaction, the mixture, which has increased its temperature and pressure, is ignited by the spark plug spark and starts burning. At the end of the combustion, the piston is pushed down quickly and the crankshaft is rotated. Work time ends when the piston goes down to A.Ö.N
  • Exhaust time : When the plunger goes up to NE, the exhaust valve opens and the burned gases are exhausted from the exhaust. This process continues until the piston comes to the U.N. These four times continue and work in the same way on a regular basis. The crankshaft turns two full turns at the end of four times.

Working Principles of Four-Time Diesel Engines

  1. Suction: Clean air to the cylinder
  2. Compression: Compression of the air supplied to the cylinder.
  3. Ignition: Burning of fuel by injecting it onto the compressed air.
  4. Exhaust: Extraction of residual gases in the cylinder.

Operating Sequence of Two Stroke Engines

  1. Time: Suction – Compression
  2. Time: Ignition (Work) – Exhaust

Working Principles of Two Stroke Engines

  1. Suction-Compression: Taking and compacting the fuel-air mixture into the cylinder.
  2. Ignition-Exhaust: Ignition of compressed air-fuel mixture and disposal of waste gases.

Two-stroke engines do not have suction and exhaust valves.

Instead of valves, there are suction and exhaust openings in the cylinder wall. with A.Ö.N. Suction with compression between two times – Compression-Ignition – Exhaust times occur. Generally, motorcycle engines and small water engines are present.


The parts inside and outside of the engine parts can be examined in two groups. They are part of the engine, but serve as auxiliary parts.

A- Parts inside the engine:

  • Cylinder (motor) Block: It forms the main body of the motor. The piston and the crankshaft makes the bed. Inside there are cylinders, crankshaft, shaft, cam (eccentric) shaft, oil pump, fuel pump, distributor, oil filter, charger, starter motor. Cylinder block and cylinder head are cracked when hot water is placed on the cold engine and hot water to the cold engine.
  • Cylinder Head: Closes the cylinder block and forms the combustion chambers. It carries spark plugs, suction and exhaust valves, injectors. There are water and oil channels around the burning dollar.
  • Crankcase: Closes the side of the cylinder block. Stored in engine oil. There is oil drain plug underneath.
  • Valve cover: Protects the valve mechanism and motor from dust, water and dirt. Engine oil is placed on the oil cap
  • Crankshaft: Converts linear motion from pistons to circular motion. At the end of the crankshaft is a gear and a pulley. Moves to the gear cam (eccentric) shaft. The pulley moves to the alternator with a water pump. 4 times the crankshaft in 2 cycles, two times in the crankshaft in 1 cycle.
  • Piston: Allows time to occur due to movements in the cylinder.


  • Piston Rod: transmits the linear movement taken from the piston to the crankshaft.
  • Cir clips: The piston is located on the piston provides sealing between moving parts. When the rings or cylinder chamber are worn, the engine burns oil and blue smoke is emitted from the exhaust.
  • The cam receives the camshaft movement from the crankshaft. Gives movement to 4 elements; It gives movement to valves, distributor, oil pump, fuel pump.
  • Valves: There are two types of suction and exhaust valves. The suction valves ensure that only the air in the diesel engines and the petrol air mixture in the petrol engines enter the cylinder. Exhaust valves; The burner is the only setting made in the engine.
  • Oil Pump: It is the element that pumps oil from the crankcase to the engine parts to be lubricated.
  • Seals: They provide sealing between fixed parts.

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